Actually, it looks like that Windows Installer is having problems.
Third-party programs like antivirus can interfere with installations. That’s why it is recommended to close or disable such programs when installing a new one.
Another option: use an archiver like 7-zip or Winrar to unpack the ExeOutput for PHP setup EXE file. It should contain a MSI and a CAB file. Double-click on the MSI to launch the installation manually.